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ΛΑΡΥΓΓΙΤΙΔΑ


Πρόκειται για φλεγμονή του λάρυγγα και μπορεί να είναι οξεία ή χρόνια.

λαρυγγιτιδαΗ οξεία λαρυγγίτιδα οφείλεται κυρίως σε ιούς και μπορεί να αφορά αποκλειστικά το λάρυγγα ή να αποτελεί μέρος μιας γενικότερης λοίμωξης του αναπνευστικού. Το βράγχος της φωνής είναι το πιο συχνά εμφανιζόμενο σύμπτωμα και σε κάποιες περιπτώσεις εμφανίζεται πλήρης απώλεια της φωνής ( αφωνία ). Ο ασθενής μπορεί ακόμη να παραπονείται για άλγος κατά την ομιλία και την κατάποση. Σε περίπτωση που η νόσος αφορά όλο το ανώτερο αναπνευστικό, τα συμπτώματα συνοδεύονται από πυρετό και γενική κακουχία.

Η θεραπεία της οξείας λαρυγγίτιδας περιλαμβάνει αφωνία, παυσίπονα, εισπνοές υδρατμών και αντιβιοτική αγωγή αν κριθεί απαραίτητο. Πρέπει να τονισθεί στον ασθενή η σημασία της αφωνίας μια και η βεβιασμένη φώνηση σε έναν λάρυγγα που ήδη φλεγμαίνει μπορεί να προκαλέσει μόνιμες φωνητικές διαταραχές. Ο ασθενής οφείλει να αποφεύγει την ομιλία όταν αυτό είναι εφικτό και αν πρέπει να επικοινωνήσει λεκτικά να το κάνει για μικρά χρονικά διαστήματα με ήρεμη φωνή – ο ψίθυρος πρέπει επίσης να αποφεύγεται.

Υπάρχουν ειδικές μορφές οξείας λαρυγγίτιδας που προσβάλλουν σχεδόν αποκλειστικά τα παιδιά και οφείλονται σε ιούς ή μικρόβια. Επειδή μπορεί να οδηγήσουν σε καταστάσεις απειλητικές για τη ζωή του παιδιού πρέπει να τυγχάνουν ιδιαίτερης προσοχής από γονείς και παιδιάτρους.

Η χρόνια λαρυγγίτιδα είναι δυνατό να εγκατασταθεί εξ αρχής ως ανεξάρτητη πάθηση ή να προέλθει από μια οξεία λαρυγγίτιδα.

Παράγοντες οι οποίοι ευνοούν την εγκατάσταση μιας χρόνιας λαρυγγίτιδας είναι η κατάχρηση του καπνίσματος, η εισπνοή σκόνης ή αέρα που περιέχει χημικές ουσίες (π.χ στον επαγγελματικό χώρο), η στοματική αναπνοή, ο συνεχής ερεθισμός του λάρυγγα από εκκρίσεις της μύτης και του φάρυγγα, η κατάχρηση της φωνής, η γαστροοισοφαγική παλινδρόμηση.

Εκδηλώνεται με βράγχος της φωνής, το οποίο πιθανόν να συνοδεύεται και από πόνο ή βήχα.

λαρυγγίτιδα - θεραπεία  - Η θεραπεία της χρόνιας λαρυγγίτιδας συνίσταται στην αποφυγή των αιτιολογικών παραγόντων που την προκαλούν, οικονομία φωνής και χορήγηση κατάλληλης φαρμακευτικής αγωγής. Αν με τα μέτρα αυτά δεν υποχωρήσει η πάθηση και η λαρυγγοσκόπηση φανερώσει αλλοιώσεις των φωνητικών χορδών είναι απαραίτητη η βιοψία για τον αποκλεισμό κακοήθειας.

 

 

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